Anonymous Roman Republican Denarii:

Characteristics of style, types, and varieties
of the fully Anonymous denarii of the Roman Republic

Last Updated August, 2015

This is a guide of the distinctions between the many fully anonymous varieties and sub-varieties found in the early denarii of the Roman Republic. It is limited to the period before about 150 BC, when the coinage bore a common design of the helmeted Roma types.

Contents


Introduction
Bibliography and reference
Guide to Anonymous Victoriati by Kenneth L. Friedman and Richard Schaefer New!

Index By Visor Style

                        Splayed visor index

 
                                      Peaked visor index

 

General Index

Crawford 44/5 - Splayed visor - Rome Mint - sub-varieties

Early Uncategorized Anomolies

Crawford 45/1 - Uncertain Mint - Rare

-Ski Nose
-Rev. Legend fully incuse
Crawford 46/1 - Uncertain Mint - Scarce

-Single raised line defines boundaries of visor
-Rev. Legend in two raised lines, top and right
46/1(b) (not in Crawford) - Uncertain Mint - Very Rare

-Obv. Curved visor, narrow head of Roma
-Rev. legend "ROMA" in relief in exergue w/bisecting vertical right line
46/1(c) (not in Crawford) - Uncertain Mint - Very Rare

-Obv. Curved visor, fine lines
-Rev. legend "ROMA" in relief in exergue
46(a)/1 (not in Crawford) - Uncertain Mint - Very Rare

-Obv. Curved visor, hair bun
-Rev. Near rider with head tilted upward
Crawford 53/2 - Peaked Visor - Varieties
-Four Locks of Hair
-Horses hind legs bent at hock
-Trapezoidal Frame
-Roma in frame w/ vertical r. line 
Crawford 54/1 - Uncertain Mint - Scarce

-Unique style obv with short peaked visor
-Rev. Legend "ROMA" in exergue -"Towel" Cape
Crawford 55/1 - Peaked or Splayed Visor - Uncertain Mint - Very Rare

-Lock of hair curls up to Roma's Jaw
-Rev. Cape of two lines from rider's neck
Crawford 60/1b - Uncertain Mint - Rare

-Rev. legend "ROMA" in relief on subtle raised tablet
66/(2) (not in Crawford) - Sardinia - Very Rare

-Obv. Curved very short visor
-Obv. "Pellet" below Roma's neck
-Rev. Horse's tail extended
Crawford 68/1b - Uncertain Mint - Scarce

-Single "Horn" at back of helmet
Crawford 75/1c - Mint: Sicily - Scarce

- Obverse curl in front of ear and far side of neck
- Visor of three very tight straight lines
- Reverse scrolling cape style
Crawford 80/1b - Mint: Sicily (?)- Scarce

- Obverse peaked visor curves downward
- Stars positioned slightly behind horsemen's heads
106/3(d) - Not in Crawford - Very Rare/Unique

- Curved splayed visor of three raised lines, Connected at ends
- hair behind the ear above the cord is braided.
107/1d Crawford 107/1d -  Mint: Etruria (?)- Very Rare

- Stylistically like 107/1c. but without the “C”
- "Fleshy" face with double chin of Roma
Crawford 110/1b - Mint Uncertain - Rare

- Stylistically as 110/1a (Wreath)
- loose hair locks ending in "hooks"
- Obverse skull-cap helmet
Crawford 139/1 - Rome Mint

- Sharply peaked visor
- Reverse small “ROMA” in small, three sided frame
Crawford 140/1 - Rome Mint

- Luna in a “galloping” biga, horses’ forelegs extended
Crawford 152/1c - Rome Mint - Rare

- Curl on left shoulder
- Peaked visor
- Horse’s tail trailing straight out
Crawford 158/1 - Rome Mint

- Luna in a biga with horses’ rearing up
Crawford 164/1a - Rome Mint - Scarce

- Riders cape split at neck
- Triangular griffon tufts
- "X" stars above dioscuri
Crawford 164/1b - Rome Mint - Scarce

- Unusual waving style cape of three broad lines
- "X" stars above dioscuri
Crawford 167/1 - Rome Mint

- Horse's legs are quite short, especially the hind legs
- Horse's prancing or slightly rearing up
- Reverse ROMA legend in two sided frame - top, right
- Modern "A" in ROMA
Crawford 197/1a - Rome Mint

- Reverse type Victory in galloping biga holding goad
Crawford 197/1b - Rome Mint

- Reverse type Victory in galloping biga holding whip
Crawford 198/1 - Rome Mint

- "Wing" like cape style. The upper corner extends further to the left
- "ROMA" legend in two sided frame

Introduction

Crawford categorizes the varieties described here in the standard work on the coinage, “Roman Republican Coinage” (RRC).  This vast and relatively comprehensive reference provides most of the guidelines one needs to classify the coins.  Reference to Crawford in any discussion of Roman Republican coins is essential, and I will use Crawford’s numbering as a basic structure of this guide.   Unfortunately, RRC is expensive, often beyond the reach of the average collector.  The scope of this article is limited to the first of the denarius coinage when it began in the last part of the 3rd and early 2nd centries BCE.  Furthermore, this discussion exclusively examines the fully anonymous issues without symbols or monograms, and only the early types with the helmeted head of Roma on the obverse, and the various dioscuri and chariot types on the reverse.

The series described here are commonly mis-attributed, by collectors, dealers, and even museums.  These observations may or may not have been called out in previous references, but the intent is to express them in different terms and from a different perspective in order to further eliminate obscurity.   I have tried to optimize navigation to enable linking back and forth between varieties to allow easy comparison of the example photographs.  Ultimately, style is the key element in the recognition that a coin is of one variety or another, but style is very difficult to describe in language.  Fortunately, there appears to be some uniqueness of ornamentation between the issues and sub-varieties.  I have relied heavily on these unique, though subtle, ornamentation characteristics to differentiate between varieties in the descriptions.  The types are not described in detail in each section, as the type is essentially the same across most of the issues.  Instead, the description of the "Obverse" and "Reverse" descriptions will call out the common patterns seen in most examples of the variety.  The “Distinguishing Characteristics” section should describe the most consistent characteristics, by which one can quickly determine an attribution.  If all of the items listed in the “Distinguishing Characteristics” section are not true about the coin being examined, it probably is not that sub-variety.    Of course as soon as an assumption is made about consistency, an exception will emerge, and this guide will need to be updated.

The primary purpose of this site is to facilitate classification and attribution using Crawford's RRC;  however, some new varieties not found in Crawford are included, and these will be described with rationale for distinguishing them.  Although the main purpose is classification, it is clear when observing subtle overlapping elements of styles and characteristics, as well as  new information about the dynamics of the series found in weight studies and hoard evidence, that there are relationships between many of the varieties.  Some of these relationships will be discussed.  There is further delineation of the varieties that Crawford groups together and illustrates in his plates for the relatively common 44/5 and 53/2 varieties.  Crawford obviously recognized the distinctions but there was little evidence available to draw many conclusions about how these varieties are drawn together or separated.    Some new evidence has come to light over the last forty years that helps us understand these relationships.  Another objective of drawing out the unique distinctions of these varieties is to facilitate the separation of the other varieties from these more common varieties, and to present new information and observations that distinguish the major sub-varieties that Crawford grouped together in these two large issues.  The main goal is to describe the varieties in enough detail that someone who is holding for instance,  a Crawford 75/1c in their hand can exclude it from being a Crawford 44/5.

Siblings are referenced as related varieties of the same style but with symbols, or monograms of the issuer's  name. These related issues can be extremely useful for classification.  Although the nature of these relationships is not clearly understood, the consistency of execution between the symboled siblings and their anonymous counterparts is remarkable enough to suggest that these are not accidental relationships.    I believe that the anonymous and symboled coins are most likely, the product of the same mint or mint workshop.  The similarities in style and ornamentation are just too numerous to suggest otherwise, and in fact, some obverse die links have been found between the related anonymous and symboled varieties.   For an illustration, see RRC 140/1 below.  The number of dies without symbols virtually eliminates the explanation that these are anything but intentional and cannot be explained as an engraver's  error.  Nor is there any certainty that the anonymous coins preceded the symboled varieties.

Not in Crawford (NIC) notations - Some anonymous examples are not found in RRC, but almost without exception these can be related to other Crawford references generally through a symboled sibling.   In this reference, these are extended from the related Crawford number by extending the denomination number or the variety letter to the next available position and enclosing these in parentheses.  An example is 66/(2) where there was previously no known denarii but only a single known quinarius, designated 66/1 by Crawford.

Notations used in the second column of the image tables:

NNN/Y   XXX.nn Where:

NNN = Crawford issue number

Y = Crawford sub issue (often the denomination differentiator within the issue)

XXX = Crawford plate number

nn = Image number within the plate

Bibliography and reference


1.   CRAWFORD M.H., Roman Republican Coinage - 2 volumes, Cambridge University Press - 1995
2.  SYDENHAM E.A., The coinage of the Roman Republic, Spink and Son - London 1952
3.  HERSH CHARLES A., Notes on the Chronology and Interpretation of the Roman Republican Coinage,
                The Numismatic Chronicle - London, The Royal Numismatic society 1977

4.  Monetazione Romano Repubblicana website
5.  ANDREW MCCABE, Roman Republican Coins and Books by Andrew McCabe

CRAWFORD 44/5


Crawford 44/5 is the first denarius issue cited in his work.   It contains six major sub-varieties, and a number of variations can be observed in examples of this issue, all of which have splayed or blunt end visors (none have peaked visors).  Crawford emphasizes that although this issue is among the earliest, the coins from the issue are roughly contemporary with several of the following issues in his reference.  The issue is dated after 211 BC.  The dating, relative to other issues has been variously discussed by other numismatic scholars as new evidence and considerations emerge, most notably by Charles Hersh3.  Some argue that alternatives as early as 215/214 BC are more likely dates for the first denarius, but the general consensus today is that it began shortly before 211 BC..

It is curious that the six varieties of this issue appear to be no less distinct from each other in style and design features than each is from the two subsequent issues 45/1 and 46/1.  The distinction that Crawford implies is that all of the varieties in issue 44 are Rome mint coins, where  RRC 45/1 and RRC 46/1 are of “uncertain” mints.  That these are from the mint at Rome or not is certainly impossible to determine.  In the midst of the 2nd Punic war, there is as much probability that these early denarii were struck in military mints traveling with the legions.

The details described here in order to differentiate the sub varieties of RRC 44/5 are not absolute. The descriptions are of the most common characteristics found together with the most frequently seen examples.  There are countless exceptions where characteristics span sub varieties, and reverse sub-types typical to one sub variety are found paired with an obverse of another sub-variety. This overlap is true of ornamentation details where for instance the style and all aspects of the example point to one sub-variety, but a characteristic only found in another sub-variety is observed. 

These phenomena suggest that some sub-varieties may have transitioned from others over time, rather than being concurrently produced at different workshops and by different engravers. In fact, there is now some rather convincing die link evidence assembled by Pierluigi, linking groups 1, 3 and 4 (Crawford plates IX.10, IX.16. and IX.20) to the same mint location, albeit not with denarii, but with the quinarii  stylistically related to these groups. 

  

44/6 Die Links

Crawford 44/5 is found with semi (or pseudo) incuse ROMA legend, and with legend in relief on the reverse. Crawford and others have suggested that there are rare examples of 44/5 with fully incuse legends. There are examples known that appear to be nearly fully incuse but in all observed instances, some relief is evident, and the incuse appearance can be attributed to wear or striking.  Perhaps the the Owl Enterprises/Tom McKenna Aurelia collection example is as close to fully incuse as has been seen, but even this example displays subtle areas of relief around the letters in the legend, whereas RRC 45/1 and the unique Bastianelli specimen  of 68/1 with  incuse legend show no relief in the legend.

Often splayed anonymous visor coins are by default, misattributed to this issue.  Attribution of these varieties is quite difficult and does require careful observation and a knowledge of the distinguishing characteristics.  Because RRC 44/5 has so many interesting variations and it is the first early denarius encountered in the major references, its not surprising that it is used as a catch-all for this difficult series.  The most common issues to be misattributed are RRC 45/1, 46/1, 68/1b, 75/1c, and 107/1d.  Inexplicably, peaked visor issues are also misattributed to this issue. 

RRC 44/5 IX.10 - Group 1

1




RRC 44/5
IX.10

two bars

Fig. 44/5.1

From the Phillip Davis Collection

Fig. 44/5.2

Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica,

NAC AG, Auction 33, lot 202

Obverse:  The head of Roma is generally petite in relation to the overall motif and particularly in relation to the mark of value “X”. The visor is short, extending only a short distance beyond the helmet, and is made up of two or three generally straight lines, gradually splayed directly from the hinge over the ear. Unlike the 44/5 variety in plate IX.16, which also has straight visor lines, this variety lacks the two small demarcating lines connecting the three visor lines at the outside end of the visor. The border diameter is relatively small (on both obverse and reverse) compared to other varieties, and as a result, examples frequently have a large area of the flan outside the beaded border.

Reverse: The tail of the horse is always extending fairly straight behind the horse.  The riders are well proportioned in size to the horses which are relatively slim. The legend “ROMA” is spelled out on a raised tablet in semi incuse letters.

Notice the variation in cape style between figure 44/5.1 and figure 44/5.2.   This variety is seen with various cape styles and may share reverse styles with numbers groups 3 and 4 below, Crawford plates IX.16 and IX.20.  Fig. 44/5.1 above is most closely aligned with the Crawford plate IX.10 reverse, with a billowing cape, flying high behind the rider's heads.   Fig. 44/5.2 although similar in obverse style and fabric,  displays a three-line visor and a reverse style more closely aligned with Fig 44/5.9 (Crawford plate coin IX.20).  Perhaps with further study this will be  worthy of its own "not-in-Crawford" designation.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Small head of Roma with short, slightly splayed visor made up of two or three straight  lines. The visor does not extend far from the forehead
  2. Reverse Horse’s tail extended out from horses

RRC 44/5 IX.13 - Group 2

Two sub-varieties are known of the issue of RRC 44/5 illustrated in IX.13.   These bear a few common characteristics including a fairly long visor, the lines of which splay subtly outward away from each other at the outside end of the visor, combined with the reverse horse's tail hanging down.  The reverse cape style is also relatively consistent across all sub-varieties.

The first sub-variety is characterized by a relatively narrow head of Roma on the obverse and rather un-sophisticated features.  The second variety has a slightly broader head of Roma and is rendered in more life-like and realistic facial features.  The second variety is sometimes found with a "Dot" below the truncation of the neck.  These rare examples are the finest of the series with skillfully rendered obverses.  See figure 44/5.5 below for an example of the "dot" series.  

2




RRC 44/5
IX.13

 

Fig. 44/5.3

Varesi 58, Lot 1237

Fig. 44/5.4

© Trustees of the British Museum

 

Fig. 44/5.5 - "Dot Series"

CGB 45, lot 199

Obverse:  Similar to the rather primitive style execution in group 1 above, but with a much larger head. The visor extends much further outwardly from the helmet and is splayed into 3 lines at the tips. The outside lines are slightly curved away from each other. Sometimes the tips are connected with short demarcation lines (see Fig 44/5.4.).   This variety is sometimes seen with a dot below the truncation of Roma's neck on the obverse (See figure 44/5.5)

Reverse: The dioscuri are larger bodied in relation to the horses and the general motif. The legend “ROMA” is partially incuse as shown in the photos. The horse’s tail is trailing downward, ( compare to group 1 and group 3 where the tail trails straight outward.)

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Splayed visor, outside lines of visor nearly always slightly curved in opposite directions from each other, visor extends further from the helmet than the small head version #1 above
  2. Horse’s tail trailing downward

RRC 44/5 IX.16 - Group 3

3




RRC 44/5
IX.16

Fig. 44/5.6

Photo Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Sale 70 Lot 666

Fig. 44/5.7

Private collection

Obverse:  The visor is splayed from two straight or nearly straight lines originating on the helmet over the ear, and a third shorter line between the two long lines extending from the front of the helmet, so the visor is three lines at the end. Near the end, the three lines are often, but not always, intersected by two small demarcating lines connecting the three visor lines near the outside tips of the visor.  Hair behind helmet is unbound, often referred to as the "loose locks" style.  Unlike all other varieties of Crawford 44/5, the tip of the wing on the helmet is pointing down, slightly lower than the "wrist" of the wing.

Reverse: This, group 4 below and group 1 above share the characteristic of an extended tail behind the near horse. The horsemen are relatively small and proportioned similarly to group 1 above, but the cape is most commonly streaming as in figure 44/5.6, although it is also found billowing (fig. 44/5.7)  in the same style as the group 1 example in figure 44/5.1. The legend “ROMA” is semi-incuse on a raised tablet.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Visor defined by two long straight lines extending from the hinge over the ear, a third short line between the two long lines extending from the front of the helmet
  2. The wing tip on the helmet is lower than the "wrist" of the wing, and usually points slightly downward.
  3. Hair is unbound, trailing behind the ear to the back of the neck in a loose fashion.
  4. Roma's Necklace is a simple raised line extending from high in the back of the neck to the front point of the truncation of the neck.
  5. Reverse Horse’s tail extended outward from the horses

RRC 44/5 IX.20 - group 4

The following variety is similar ornamentally to number 3 above, but somewhat different in the obverse style of Roma. Although this variety is one of the scarcest of the C44/5 family, the known varieties show many different styles and variations in ornamentation. Of the few specimens observed, there are at least five very distinct cape styles.

4




RRC 44/5
IX.20

Fig. 44/5.8

Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica

NAC AG, The RBW Collection, Auction 61, lot 182


Fig. 44/5.9

© Trustees of the British Museum


Fig. 44/5.10

Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica

NAC AG, Auction 46, lot 333

Obverse: Roma head is relatively large. The visor is splayed with the outside lines curving away from each other. It is interesting to note that the variety depicted in RRC shows no apparent demarcation lines between the long visor lines.  As in group 3; however this is actually the exception and most dies of this variety display very pronounced demarcation lines connecting the three outside tips of the visor. The hair behind helmet is not bound .   Roma's necklace is beaded and more elegant than group 3 above.  It extends to a position in front above the truncation of the neck.

Reverse: The near horse displays a tail extending outward as in group 1 and group 3 above. The ledgend ROMA is on raised tablet or lined border, but always semi-incuse style. Notice the variation in cape style between figure 44/5.8 and figure 44/5.9.  Some of the reverse variations found on this variety are also found on group 1.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Outside lines of visor curved away from each other. Two narrow strands of hair from behind the ear in front of the helmet neck guard flap.  The hair is unbound.
  2. Roma's necklace is beaded and more elegant than group 3 above.  It extends to a point in front above the truncation of the neck.
  3. Reverse Horse’s tail extended out from horses

RRC 44/5 IX.22 - group 5

Group 5 is similar to Group 6 in style. The key immediate differentiation will be in the ROMA legend. Group 5 legend is always semi-incuse. Group 6 legend is always in relief.

5




RRC 44/5
IX.22

Fig. 44/5.11

© Trustees of the British Museum

 

Fig. 44/5.12

Negrini 31 lot 175

Note Dot below truncation

 

Fig. 44/5.13

Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica

NAC AG, The RBW Collection, Auction 61, lot 183

Obverse: Roma head is the largest of all the sub varieties, using most of the available space within the beaded border. The curved visor extends from the hinge above the ear as a solid mass or very close parallel lines but divides into three separated lines above the forhead. At the end of each line is frequently a tiny pellet. Multiple hair locks trailing from behind the ear, tied with a cord and bunched.

Reverse: Horse's tail hangs down from behind the closest horse. The legend “ROMA” is semi-incuse in large letters but with fewer of the incuse characteristics than groups 1-4, and with the beginnings of a transition to relief.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Large head of good style and natural uniformity, curved splayed visor (Sydenham Helmet A.2)
  2. Reverse Horse’s tail hangs down from behind the closest horse
  3. The legend ROMA is semi-incuse.

RRC 44/5 IX.24 - group 6

There is reason to suggest that the following variety - that illustrated in the Crawford plate IX.24, is separated from the other RRC 44/5 varieties at least in terms of time if not in terms of location. This is supported by the fact that no known Quinarii or Sestertii exist with this style where quinarii are known for all other varieties, and Sestertii are known for all other varieties but IX.22. Furthermore this is the only C44/5 that consistently has a ROMA legend in relief.

There is also reason to believe that there are two distinct issues within this sub-variety - Those with tufts on the back of the helmet and those without.   It would seem that this would be an inconsequential detail, but the theory is supported by the siblings to which they are related.   The anchor symbol sibling always comes with gryphon tufts on the back of the helmet.  The Prow (rostrum tridens) always is found without.

6




RRC 44/5
IX.24

Fig. 44/5.14 - No Tufts

Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica,

NAC AG, Auction 51, lot 6

Fig. 44/5.15 - Tufts

Classical Numismatic Group eAuction 238, lot 710

Obverse: Large head of Roma very similar in style to group 5 above, but narrower as a rule. The Visor is distinctively solid from the hinge over the ear to the outside tip with only a suggestion of lined division and points near the end. “Tufts” on the back of the helmet may or may not be in evidence (see discussion at the beginning of this section). Multiple hair locks trailing from behind the ear, tied with a cord and bunched.

Reverse: Horse’s tail hangs down. Legend ROMA is seen in small raised letters in a raised line border.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. The Legend ROMA is in relief
  2. Nearly solid, broad curved visor, sometimes separating to three lines near the end (Sydenham helmet A.1.)
  3. Near horse’s tail hangs down

Sibling Varieties:  No Tufts- RRC 62/1 (Rostrum Tridens)   Tufts- RRC 50/2 (Anchor)

7




RRC 44/5
No Crawford Plate

RRC 44/5 Limp Tail Variety - group 7

In addition to the splayed visor varieties in the Crawford plates, there are other patterns of style that are close enough to be classified as variety 44/5 but stylistically different enough to be regarded as a different major subvariety. Number seven is quite similar to numbers five and six, but the stylistic differences are relatively substantial and consistent across several examples. The consistency between the examples suggests a different workshop or a different engraver for both the obverse and reverse.

Fig. 44/5.16

Photo Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Fig. 44/5.17

Numismatik Lanz

Auktion 38, Nov. 1986

Obverse: Large head of Roma very similar in style to group 5 and group 6 above. The curved visor is made up of two main raised lines and a third center line extending from slightly less than half way into the helmet from the outside tips. The tips of these lines are always pointed, unlike the other 44/5 sub-varieties.   The tufts on the back of the helmet are small, and sometimes odd shaped like spines as in figure 44/5.15.

Reverse: Horse’s tail hangs down but in a consistently “limp” style with relatively little wave or curve in the downwared extension.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Broad curved visor of two main raised lines and a shorter center line extending to pointed tips (Sydenham helmet B.3.)
  2. Near horse’s tail hangs down in a limp fashion. (Compare with other varieties with hanging tail where the tail is rather wavy.)

Early Anomolies

This unique example in the ANS collection breaks many rules and does not fall easily into any of the anonymous categories, although stylistically and ornamentally it is closest to different Crawford 44/5 varieties

The hair behind the helmet is unbound like 44/5 plates IX.16 and IX.20.  The necklace extends to the point of the truncation of the neck, like the variety pictured in plate IX.16, but unlike that variety where the necklace is a simple line, this necklace is beaded.   The facial features are in the style of RRC 44/5 plate IX.13, but the visor is very different from other coins of that variety with three very straight  lines ending in neat round pellets.  The shape of the reverse frame around the legend "ROMA" is similar to the earlier Crawford 44/5 varieties in that it has an inward curving left border but it also has an inward curving right border, seen very rarely with semi incuse varieties; this legend though, is in relief.    The stars are large but implemented in a quite different way than any other early variety.


American Numismatic Society

From the Charles Hersh collection

This obverse has features of many varieties, but the overall style is unlike any.  Relatively narrow head with visor with three straight lines and a small tuft of hair below the helmet.

The reverse is like the IX.10 plate coin with the cape trailing high above the riders heads, but the horses are in a posture suggesting they are just taking off into a high gallop with fore-hooves far above, similar to the posture shown later in 53/2 group 1.  The legend ROMA is in an odd shaped frame and is almost fully incuse.

Kestner

Kestner-Museum, Hannover

Known from a single example, and with the hallmarks of Crawford 44/5 IX.16 but of aberrant style.

The overall diagnostics of this coin suggest the common IX.16 variety, but many aspects of this coin suggest it was out of the mainstream, including the style of the cape, the hair on the neck and the irregular griffon tufts on the back of the helmet.   The near fully incuse  reverse legend is remarkable. 


From the Phillip Davis Collection

CRAWFORD 45/1


This rare issue is thought to be from an uncertain mint. The combination of the “Ski-Nose” and the fully incuse “ROMA” on a tablet distinguishes this issue.  This is the only denarius issue consistently found with fully incuse legend.    The Incuse legend and Ski-Nose style are the important element of attribution for RRC 45/1.

8




RRC 45/1
IX.25

Fig. 45/1.1

© Trustees of the British Museum


Fig. 45/1.2

Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica

NAC AG, The RBW Collection, Auction 61, lot 192

Obverse: Roma has a long, curved pointed “Ski Nose”. Visor is 3 straight lines extending and splaying from the hinge over the ear.

Reverse: Horse’s tail is extending outward. ROMA is fully incuse on a raised tablet.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Obverse “Ski Nose” on Roma
  2. Horse’s tail extended outward
  3. Reverse word ROMA is fully incuse on raised tablet

CRAWFORD 46/1


Also believed to be from an uncertain mint, RRC 46/1 is often misattributed as RRC 44/5. This issue is depicted in RRC plate X.1 with the distinctive single line-boundary defining the visor and the two line legend frame on reverse.  This issue is now known through a series of reverse die links to include at least three different, very diverse obverse styles, both of which are missing in Crawford,  although one is the anonymous sibling to RRC 60/1c (Caduceus).  These new varieties shall be designated here as 46/1(b) and 46/1(c).     Here is a 46/1 die link diagram  that supports this relationship. 

Here is a detailed discussion and die study of the 46/1 series. STUDIO DEI CONII DI RRC 46/1 E 60/1c by Pierluigi Debernardi reprinted with permission from the October 2013 edition of Panorama Numismatico.

9




RRC 46/1
X.1

Fig. 46/1.1

New York Sale IV

Lot 313

 

Fig. 46/1.2

© Trustees of the British Museum

Obverse: Style and size of the head of Roma is similar to 44/5 X.22, above. The visor is unique in that it is a curved visor, blunt at the outside perimeter, and defined by two curved lines from the hinge over the ear, splaying apart, and connected at the end with a single demarcating line. There is no third line between the top and bottom lines that form the visor.  

Reverse: The word ROMA raised and bounded by two raised lines, one on top and the second, a vertical line on the right. Horses are “chubby”, and the rider’s heads are a bit large for their bodies.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Obverse curved visor defined by a single line, above, below and in front
  2. Reverse two sided frame around ROMA, top and vertical right
  3. Chubby (a little overweight) horses.

46/1(b) Not in Crawford


46/1(b) displays a completely different obverse style from 46/1 but is known to be of the same issue by a reverse die link between an example in Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli and a coin of the more common 46/1 obverse. Here is a 46/1 die link diagram  that supports this relationship.  This obverse style is rare, but a small number of fine examples have been offered for sale in the last 50 years.

10




RRC 46/1(b)
Not in Crawford
 

Fig. 46/1(b).1

Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli

Fig. 46/1(b).2

Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica

NAC AG, Auction 7, lot 549

Obverse:  Curved visor splitting to 3 lines at the outside end. Some examples display the outside lines splaying away from each other near the outer perimeter.  The hair below the helmet is bound with a cord. There is a full "ball" of hair below the cord with locks of hair trailing below the ball.  The griffon tufts are geometrical triangles, the points of which extend straight out away from the helmet.   In some examples, the tufts are upon a raised ridge, giving the impression of a saw blade (see the index image).

Reverse:   The reverse style is stylistically Identical to the more common RRC 46/1, but for the ROMA legend which is variably found either as 46/1 with a two line top, right frame, and also nearly fully in exergue with a line at the bottom.  Some examples show a nearly full exergual line with a bisecting vertical right line .

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. -  Curved visor on a somewhat narrow head of Roma in good style
  2. -  Three-pendant earring
  3. -  Reverse cape style as 46/1

46/1(c) Not in Crawford


46/1(C) is the rare anonymous sibling to (also rare) RRC 60/1c (Caduceus). The example illustrated here is a reverse die link to the fine 46/1(b) specimen in NAC 7 lot 549 offered at auction March 1994.   This die link, in combination with the die link between 46/1 and  46/1(b) suggests that this and the other two major obverse styles were the product of the same mint.  Here is a 46/1 die link diagram  that supports this relationship

11




RRC 46/1(c)
Not in Crawford
 

Fig. 46/1(c).1

Photo courtesy of The American Numismatic Society

Obverse:  Curved visor of two fine lines, splayed from hinge over the ear.  There is usually a short third line between the two lines extending from the forehead to the outer perimeter.  Often the visor lines are terminated with tiny pellets.   The stylistic rendering of Roma's head is similar to RRC 44/5 IX.22, but Roma's head is narrower, the hair below the helmet is not as full as 44/5 IX.22. 

Reverse:   The reverse style is stylistically Identical to the more common RRC 46/1, but for the ROMA legend which is unlike 46/1, nearly fully in exergue with possibly a line at the bottom.   46/1 displays lines at top and right consistently.  Although there is no evidence of this vertical line,  all known specimens of 46/1(c) are slightly off-center and do not reveal the entire legend.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. -  The facial style of the obverse Roma is as sibling 60/1c with Caduceus
  2. -  The reverse legend "ROMA" in raised letters in exergue, sometimes with line below
  3. -  Curved visor on a somewhat narrower head than 44/5 IX.22
  4. -  Hair below helmet is not as full on comparable 44/5 IX.22 varieties

Siblings: RRC 60/1c (Caduceus) - Also, see example in 46/1 die link diagram

46(a)/1 Not in Crawford


46(a)/1 is not necessarily an extension of 46/1, although there are some similarities with 46/1(c) but this identifier is used to place this in the early position in which it belongs, and to designate it as  a true series, and not an anomaly. It is more than an anomaly, as evidenced by the fact that there are more than one obverse die. Nevertheless it is rare. Only three examples are known.

Curved 3 line Curved Visor, Hair in bun, Dancing horses

12




RRC 46(a)/1
Not in Crawford

Photo Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Auction 79, Lot 785

Obverse:   Large round helmet with a curved visor of three lines, splayed from hinge over the ear and ending in tiny pellets.    The hair below the helmet forms a bun with small tufts emerging below (common to the 46 series as evidenced in the above varieties).  The necklace is a simple line ending at the point of the truncation of the neck.  The tufts on the back of the helmet are only very lightly suggested, but apparent on both dies. 

Reverse:   The near riders head is tilted backward, looking rather upward on the only known reverse die. The horses have a rather peculiar, stiff legged dancing posture. The legend ROMA is in small letters, fully in relief with a three line frame, top, right, and bottom.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. -  Large round helmet with very lightly suggested griffon tufts.
  2. -  The reverse legend "ROMA" in raised letters in a small three line frame
  3. -  Curved three line visor ending with very small pellets
  4. -  Reverse near rider's head tilted upward
  5. -  Horses in an unusual stiff-legged dancing posture

Two other known examples are:

Second example.  Same dies as the CNG coin above

 

Harlan J. Berk, Ltd. Sale 121

Third example in Milan.  Different obverse die, same reverse die

 

Gabinetto Numismatico e Medagliere, Milan

CRAWFORD 53/2


Crawford 53/2 introduces the peaked helmet visor. This group is, much like 44/5, not a single variety, but an assembly of many different varieties, all of which have some common characteristics. All are ornamentally similar, and all are roughly from the same point in time. Crawford suggests “after 211 B.C.” but nearly all subsequent research suggests these arrived later, probably sometime after 208 B.C.   RRC suggests a weight standard based on a denarius of 4.5 gm., but there is a broad range of weights for examples demonstrating all of the stylistic characteristics of 53/2, from less than 3.5 grams to more than 4.5 grams.  A recent weight comparison study of several hundred examples of these two groups completed by Pierluigi suggests that the 53/2 coins are statistically lighter than the 44/5 coins:

 

Crawford's suggestion that the 53/2 series was struck on a weight standard of 4.5 appears to be somewhat in question, and this study suggests that perhaps this very large series spanned the transition from 4.5 to 3.8 gr.

It is believed that weight uniformity was loosely controlled in the mint by weighing a fixed quantity of silver to average an aim weight across several similar sized flans.

Crawford illustrates 8 stylistic sub-varieties in plate X without any descriptive differentiation in the catalogue. There are several distinct sub-varieties that have been discovered subsequent to RRC. In the analysis presented here, 10 groups are represented, two of which are not represented in the plates of RRC. These sub-varieties are apparently from the hands of several die engravers, showing not only slightly different ornamental details, but also very distinct styles within these sub-varieties, some of which are extremely elegant.  Each of these 10 varieties represents a distinct issue, separated either by time or place.  This is supported by the fact that as of this time, no die links are known to span across the boundaries of these groups, suggesting that the dies never shared a “die box” in the same time, or mint workshop.

That these separations are temporal or geographical is the subject of much debate, but some assumptions may be suggested by the known hoards of the time.   Although there is no certainty of the order and sequence of these issues, there is some evidence that groups 0, 1, and 4 are early based on their frequency and distribution in hoards of this time and the overall heavier weight distribution closer to the 4.5 gm. standard of a large sample of group 4 coins.  The Orzivecchi and Tarquinia hoards include only Groups 0, 1 and 4.  Group 9 is almost certainly the latest.  This, the most common 53/2 variety by far, is totally missing in some large hoards containing substantial numbers of groups 4, 5, and 6, and the weight distribution of a large sample suggests that they were based on the later 3.8 gm. standard.  Additionally, the relationships to the symboled siblings suggests both sequence and geographical separation. Further discussion of the separation and sequential transition is described in the detailed description of the groups.

The key distinguishing obverse features are the helmet, various patterns of hair arrangement, and the spacing of the griffon tufts on the back of the helmet. The key distinguishing reverse features are the frame around the legend ROMA, the cape trailing the near horseman, the posture of the horses, and the stars above the heads of the horsemen.

Ultimately, style is the key determination with this series. Many distinguishing characteristics of ornamentation are best regarded as “usually the case” because there are seemingly endless exceptions to the rule with most of the distinguishing characteristics.

Cape styles are among the key characteristics that help distinguish (in combination with other characteristics) between sub-varieties of Crawford 53/2. The three styles are described as follows:

"Streaming" – Somewhat characteristic of a banner “streaming” in the wind.
"Flag-like" or "Waving" – Characterized by 3 or 4 roughly parallel wavy lines, usually ending with the tips pointing upward.
"Scrolling" or "B" Cape – The cape appears to be billowing, and filled with air. The end of the cape is in the form of a “scrolling” B. This style is found on the plate X.15 sub-variety of Crawford 53/2, but it is also found as a variation on other 53/2 varieties that are normally found with a flag cape, such as the X.16  anonymous sibling to the "club" series,  RRC 75/1c and other symboled or signed varieties.

This section is largely the fruit of the analysis completed by Pierluigi. Richard Schaefer’s Republican Die Project (RDP) has also been extremely valuable in identifying examples of these varieties and how they fit into the grand scheme of things. I am also indebted to Ross Glanfield for advice and input on the definitions in this section.

53(a)


This variety is not pictured in the Crawford Plates. It is distinctly different than any of the other 53/2 varieties and the obverse style is closest to Crawford 88/2a which is the scarce variety in the spear head series.   The variety was discovered by Pierluigi and is very scarce, but is represented by at least 13 obverse and 12 reverse dies.

This series is identified as 53A because it is different in so many ways from the other 53/2 varieties.  The short flagged cape is unlike any of the other varieties, the four locks of hair, the visible hair cord (previously only found in C44 and C46), and the remarkable workmanship on some of the examples draws this apart.  The trapezoidal frame suggests an early style.

13




RRC 53(a)


(Not in Crawford)

Fig. 53/2.1

Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Fig. 53/2.2

BWB MA-shop, Nov. 2009

Obverse: Head of Roma with four locks of hair at the back of the neck. (only this and group 7 have four locks instead of 3). The hair binding is clearly visible above the four locks of hair, and this is unique in the 53/2 series. Most dies exhibit many small griffon tufts at the back of the helmet, and many dies display a highly detailed 3-dimensional rendering of the griffon tufts as illustrated in Figure 53/2.2 above.  Helmet visor is usually short, not extending far from the forhead.

Reverse: Horse's hind legs are bent at the hock, so that the hind hooves are ahead of the hock. (This feature is also seen in group 3 dies, but with an entirely different style obverse). The far horse's tail is always visible. The ROMA legend is surround by a trapezoidal frame.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Obverse four locks of hair. 
  2. Hair cord is clearly defined above the four locks.
  3. Reverse horse's hind legs bent at the hock (first joint below the hindquarters)
  4. Very small tufts behind the helment of Roma
  5. Legend ROMA surrounded by trapezoidal frame

Weight Distribution Analysis:

The sample frequency of group zero is small and the weight distribution is unrevealing,  with three example above the 4.5 gm standard, Six below the 3.8gm later standard and five examples in-between.

Sibling: RRC 88/2a (Spearhead),  This relationship is tentatively suggested by the closeness of the obverse style, but note that this symboled series has only 3 locks of hair.  The reverse is very different in many ways.

Group 1 - Rearing Horses


This variety is believed to be one of the earliest issues of 53/2 based on its consistent presence (though in small numbers) in early hoards where contents included 53/2 examples.   It is nearly always found with a loop under the visor, believed to be an attribute of Sicilian origin.   There are no symboled siblings for this group.

14




RRC 53/2
X.13

Fig. 53/2.3

Private Collection

Fig. 53/2.4

Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica,

NAC AG, Auction 25, lot 247

Obverse: There is usually a small loop under the visor in front of the forehead. The loop is often discretely represented as a small lump, other times it is clearly a loop as shown in Fig. 53/2.4.  Tufts at the back of the helmet are very small and close together. 

Reverse: More so than any other variety in this issue, the horses appear to be rearing up, rather than galloping forward, particularly the far horse, with forelegs farther above the exergue than on other varieties. The legend ROMA is in a trapezoidal frame. Cape style is Flag-like or Waving.   There is nearly always a pointed horse's tail visible between the legs.  The horses and riders appear rather small and distant, compared to other varieties.

Exceptions:  There are rare examples that are clearly of this style but with horses that are galloping broadly forward rather than rearing up.   See "Group 1 Variations" below.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Loop under visor (There are scarce exceptions without)
  2. Reverse horses rearing up with fore-hooves much higher above the exergue
  3. Trapezoidal frame
  4. Very small tufts behind the helment of Roma
  5. "Waving" flag cape style
  6. Second horse's tail is visible

Group 1 Variations

Unmistakably 53/2 Group 1, but this is a scarce variation without a loop under the visor.

Group 1 obverse combined with  transitional reverse with horses in a posture of galloping forward rather than rearing up.

Group 2 - scrolling "b" cape


The Group 2 coins are characterized by a rider's cape which ends in two loops in the form of a "B".    But for the cape style, the reverse is in a similar style to Group 1 reverse, relatively small thin horses but the horse's forehooves are not raised as high. 

A scrolling "B" cape is also seen rarely on the group 4  dies as well as its sibling "Club" series coins.

15




RRC 53/2
X.15

Fig. 53/2.5

Private Collection

Fig. 53/2.6

Photo Courtesy Harlen Berk Ltd.

Obverse: Tufts on the helmet are very close together as are all of these early varieties, 0-4. 

Reverse: The near horseman displays a “scrolling” style cape with curled ends suggesting that the cape is billowing in the wind.  ROMA appears in a trapezoidal frame although the bottom of the frame  is often obscured, giving the impression that ROMA is under an exergual line.    The pointed tail of the far horse is visible between the horse’s hind legs.  

NOTE: the scrolling cape is found in a scarce sub-variety of Group 4 with a rectangular frame.  This variation usually lacks the extra tail.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. 1. Reverse scrolling "B" style cape
  2. 2. Trapezoidal frame
  3. 3. Large stars above riders heads
  4. 4. Pointed tail of the far horse is visible between the legs

Group 3 - crouching Hind legs - Hatched Tail


The horses on the group 3 dies are larger and appear closer to the viewer. The hind legs are always in a crouched pose with the hock bent further to the left than any other part of the leg.   The tail between the horses is nearly always present and in the form of several horizontal "hatched" lines.

It is uncertain where this variety may lie in temporal relation to the others.  The obverse style is very much like group 2, and the trapezoidal frame is only otherwise found on earlier varieties, but the streaming cape style suggests a later timeframe.  Documented hoard evidence is sparse or non-existent.

16




RRC 53/2
X.14

Fig. 53/2.7

© Trustees of the British Museum

Fig. 53/2.8

Private Collection

Fig. 53/2.9

Staatliche Museen zu Berlin

Obverse: Two raised lines over visor. Tufts on the back of the helmet very close together.

Reverse: The word ROMA in a trapezoidal frame with the bottom line shorter than the top line, and angled lines connecting the top and bottom.  The angled lines are often hidden on off-center coins. Horseman’s cape is of the “streaming” style. There is an interesting extra horse’s tail in the form of several short paralell horizontal lines extending between the pairs of horse’s hind legs.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Reverse legend ROMA in trapezoidal frame
  2. Extra horse’s tail of several short paralell horizontal lines
  3. Tufts on back of helmet are close together
  4. “Streaming” style cape

Group 1-3  Relationships and Variations


Groups 1-3 are drawn together with many similarities.  All have trapezoidal frames, group 1 and 2 share very similar reverse styles, and groups 2 and 3 share similar obverse styles.

Weight Distribution Analysis:

The weights of Groups 1-3 tend to fall around the 3.8 standard, with only 20% of the distribution around the 4.5 standard.

The following examples are transitional varieties all of which break some of the rules described above but displaying stylistic similarites to groups 1 through 3.

Obverse of Group 1.
Reverse with streaming cape and extended hind legs

Obverse of Group 3.
Streamin cape and hind legs extended

Group 1 obverse and reverse style
Reverse with crouching pose, but with slimmer, more distant group 1 style horses.

Group 4 - Flag cape - rectangular Roma frame


The helmet on these is often without raised lines above.  The reverse cape style is always the "Flag" style and the Frame around ROMA is normally rectangular with clearly vertical right frame line.

17




RRC 53/2
X.16

Fig. 53/2.10

Private Collection

Fig. 53/2.11

Hess-Divo Sale 317, Lot 434  - Example with single raised line above the visor

Auction 5, lot 216

Fig. 53/2.12

Group 4 example with two Raised lines above visor .

Photo Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Obverse: Tufts on back of helmet are fine and close together.  There is often no raised line above the visor (visor looks to be a solid unornamented peaked shape), but there are many exceptions with one and two raised lines.

Reverse: Stars very close together and rather between the horsemen’s heads. The legend "ROMA" is bordered on two or three sides with a vertical line on the right.  Some very scarce group 4 coins will display a nearly exergual frame with reverses stylistically identical to the group 5 coins.   The cape style is of the "Flag"  variety except the scarce varieties with a scrolling "B" cape.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Many tufts on the back of Roma's helmet.
  2. Reverse stars are close together
  3. Flag or "B" cape style (never streaming), usually of 3 waving lines, but some dies display 4 lines.
  4. Legend ROMA in two or three lined rectangular frame (scarce exceptions exist with exergual line)

Weight Distribution Analysis:

The Group 4 weight distribution represents the heaviest of all the groups statistically, with more than half of the specimens above 4 gm., suggesting this large issue was one of the earliest.

Variations

53/2 Group 4 Variation with scrolling "B" cape and rectangular frame.  This variety is scarce but is seen on several dies.  The scrolling cape is also seen on some scarce C89/1 club series dies.

 

Geld Museum, Zurich

53/2 Group 4 Variation is sometimes seen with near fully exergual line above ROMA.

 

Gabinetto Numismatico e Medagliere, Milan

Sibling: Club series, Crawford 89/2

Group 5 - Spear Head Sibling with flag cape


The slim, young face of Roma on the obverse and the nearly exergual frame on the reverse characterizes this variety

18




RRC 53/2
X.18

Fig. 53/2.13

Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica,

NAC AG, Auction 54, lot 157

Fig. 53/2.14

Photo Courtesy of Pars Coins

Obverse: Tufts on helmet close together (6). Usually two prominent raised lines above a moderately long peaked visor.

Reverse: Horseman’s cape is of the waving “Flag” type. Stars above horsemen’s head are close together. Nearly exergual frame with long top line and very faint downward right side line, usually curving inward slightly.   The far horse tail is never seen on this variety

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Flag Cape style consisting of four waving lines (Very rarely 3 lines)
  2. ROMA surrounded by two lines – a very long one on top and a curved line on the right. Occasionally ROMA is fully in exergue with a single line on top
  3. Two raised curved lines above the visor on obverse
  4. The tufts at the back of the helmet are small, although there are not as many as groups 1-4.

Weight Distribution Analysis:

The Group 5 examples tend to be close to the 3.8 standard.  A similar distribution to groups 1-3.

Sibling: RRC 88/2b (Spearhead), obverse style.

Group 6 - Curved Visor - Broad Helmet


The helmet on these is usually rather broad with a visor curved downward on the bottom edge, some variations of a similar style have a straight visor.  Always found with a "Streaming" cape.

19




RRC 53/2
X.17

Fig. 53/2.15

Photo Courtesy of Harlan Berk Ltd.

 

Fig. 53/2.16

Bibliothèque Nationale de France

This variety introduces the new style streaming cape, slightly different from that found on group 3 dies.   This style cape is carried forward for the remainder of the 53/2 series.

Obverse: Tufts behind the head of Roma are close together (5).  The visor is curved slightly downward at the bottom edge.  There are always two relatively straight lines above the visor subtly splaying from their beginning at the hinge to their ends near the periphery.   The obverse style of this and Group 5 is the similar.

Reverse: ROMA in 3 sided frame with bottom line unconnected. The cape is “streaming” behind the rider.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Broad head and helmet with slightly curved visor
  2. Two lines above visor diverging slightly away from each other
  3. Cape style Streaming
  4. Griffon tufts on the back of the helmet are close together.

Weight Distribution Analysis:

A much smaller sample was available for group 6.  The Group 6 examples tend to be close to the 4.5 standard. 

Variation with similar style but smaller head and straight visor =>
Note also the two raised lines above the helmet are not straight, but curved.

Sibling: RRC 88/2b (Spearhead with streaming cape variation)

Group 7 - Cornucopia Sibling - four hair locks


This rare but distinct variety not pictured in the RRC plates, is characterized by four locks of hair below the binding under the helmet, and a plain visor that is slightly extended at the top edge.  It is known by two reverse and three obverse dies.

20




RRC 53/2
NIC

Fig. 53/2.17

Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica,

 

Fig. 53/2.18

Muenzen und Medaillen Gmbh

Auction 19, Lot 517

Obverse: . Roma with four locks of hair on the neck, unlike any other varieties except group 0.  Large tufts on the back of the helmet.  The top edge of the plain peaked visor is slightly extended with one raised line above.

Reverse: “Streaming” cape, Three sided frame around the legend ROMA along the Top, right, and bottom.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Four locks of hair on Roma's neck
  2. Upper edge of visor is slightly extended from the helmet
  3. Relatively large tufts at the back of the helmet
  4. Rectangular frame around ROMA legend
  5. Streaming cape

Sibling: RRC 58/2 (Cornucopia)

Group 8 - Extended Visor


The head of Roma is usually rather narrow with widely separated griffon tufts and a visor, the top edge of which extends away from the helmet.

21




RRC 53/2
X.19

Fig. 53/2.19

Photo Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Fig. 53/2.20

Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Obverse:  Although the visor is peaked, the top edge extends out from the helmet in a more blunt fashion.   Griffon tufts are large, well separated, and few.

Reverse: “Streaming” cape, Three sided frame around the legend ROMA along the Top, right, and bottom.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Top edge of visor extends out further than other varieties forming a relatively “blunted”, less peaked, fashion
  2. Large/Tall X mark of value
  3. Well separated tufts at the back of the helmet
  4. Streaming cape
  5. Tiny "o" in RoMA

Weight Distribution Analysis:

Again, a small sample for group 8 suggests an even distribution between the the two standards.

Very Rare hybrid with flag cape links this to group 4 or group 5. The three line cape suggests group 4. The apparent exergual frame atop ROMA suggests group 5. The obverse style is mainline group 8. =>

Staatliche Museen zu Berlin

Group 9 - Star Sibling


This is the largest issue of the anonymous 53/2 group and most likely the latest. Although it is the most common, it is noticeably absent in some hoards containing the other mainline 53/2 varieties. It is characterized by widely separated griffon tufts on the back of the helmet, usually only 4 or 5. Always a streaming cape and and a rectangular 3 line frame around ROMA.

This huge issue has several stylistic varieties and has siblings in the Star, prow, and rudder series.

22




RRC 53/2
X.20

Fig. 53/2.21

Photo Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Fig. 53/2.22

 Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica

NAC AG, The RBW Collection, Auction 61, Lot 207

Obverse:  Two raised lines above visor. The tufts on the helmet are well separated (4-5).

Reverse:  The legend "ROMA" is raised within a lined border: two long lines above and below, and a short line on right. Cape is “streaming” behind the rider. The tail of the far horse is never present in background between the horses' hind legs.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Widely separated tufts behind the helmet
  2. One raised lines above the visor
  3. Reverse streaming cape

Weight Distribution Analysis:

Perhaps the most revealing of all, the Group 9 sample is large and clearly suggests a 3.8 standard.  This combined with its absence in many hoards containing the earlier groups suggests that group 9 was is squarly in the later period when the aim for a single coin was 3.8 gm.

A comparison of weight distribution with its star and prow siblings also reinforces the relationship.

Variations

This was a huge issue, many times larger than all of the other 53/2 major varieties, and almost certainly the latest. The dies of this issue were obviously cut by many celators and many distinctive styles exist. Here are a few of the most commonly encountered. The differentiation of the styles is largely recognized by the distinctions on the obverse die

Small head and  helmet                                                               

Large head and  helmet                                                               

Large eye, angular face                                                               

Sibling:  RRC 113/1 (star)RRC 114/1 (Rostrum Tridens) , C117a/1 (Rudder).

CRAWFORD 54/1


Also believed to be from an uncertain mint, RRC 54/1 is often misattributed as RRC 53/2. Ultimately the unique style distinguishes this issue from others. Crawford estimates fewer than 10 obverse dies, but many of the examples I have seen are from unique obverse and reverse dies, and furthermore, appear to be from a different hand. The consistency of ornamentation draws them together and suggests a common reference from which the die cutters worked.

23




RRC 54/1
X.21

Fig. 54/1.1

Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica,

NAC AG, Auction 25, lot 248

Fig. 54/1.2

Photo Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Mail Bid Sale 78, Lot 1595

Fig. 54/1.3

© Trustees of the British Museum

Obverse:  Tuft points on the back of the helmet lay close to the helmet and extend down to the bottom back of the helmet. The visor is of three curved raised lines and the visor peak is short, not extending far from the forehead. The face of Roma is stylistically unlike other peaked helmet varieties.  Multiple locks of hair below the hair cord.

Reverse: Cape style is waving, but stylistically different from other varieties. The direction of the waving lines is rather more upward than other issues, and the end of the cape is somewhat flat like the edge of a bathtowel. ROMA is fully in exergue with a single line extending across the top extending with the lined border on both sides.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Hair below ear and behind neck made up of several small well defined locks
  2. Short peak on visor
  3. Roma in exergue

CRAWFORD 55/1


This very rare variety is best identified by the short lock of hair curling up just under Roma’s jaw line.  This is the only series of denarii with examples of both splayed and peaked visors.  For a thorough discussion of this variety and all the known dies, see Pierluigi's article on this series: RRC 55/1: the origin of the peaked visor in Roman Republican denarii .

24




RRC 55/1
X.22

Fig. 55/1.1

Inasta sale 35, lot 319


Fig. 55/1.2

Bibliothèque Nationale de France

 


See also an example at the Lamoneta.it site having several images of rare varieties including Crawford 55/1: Lamoneta.it site example

 

Obverse: This variety displays a rather slender head of relatively good style. There are four prominent hair locks on neck below helmet, the shortest of which curls up just under Roma’s jaw line.   As the images above relate, the variety is found with both splayed and peaked visor.  The helmet is distinctly rendered three dimensionally displaying the rear bottom edge of the visor on the far side of Roma's forehead.

Reverse: The horse’s necks and the riders themselves seem to be leaning back more so than on other varieties. The cape style splits and ends in two points, the points extending roughly equal distances from their point of split.  This style follows none of the patterns described elsewhere for other varieties.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. The shortest of the locks of hair at the back of the neck curls up just under Roma’s jaw line.
  2. Three dimensional visor displaying the far edge in front of the forehead.
  3. Unique cape style, extending from the rider’s neck in just two raised lines and splitting to two end-points.

CRAWFORD 60/1b


Crawford 60/1b is the sibling to 60/1a, but without the caduceus symbol on the reverse. This issue, believed to be a product of a mint in Central Italy, is stylistically unique, with the obverse rendered as a somewhat masculine "muscular" featured head of Roma

25




RRC 60/1b
No plate image

Fig. 60/1b.1

Photo Courtesy of Andrew McCabe

Fig. 60/1b.2

Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica

NAC AG, The RBW Collection, Auction 61, lot 256

Obverse:   Visor of two rather straight lines, splayed from hinge over the ear.  There is usually a short third line between the two lines extending from the forehead to the outer perimiter.   The stylistic rendering of Roma's head is rather crude.  On most examples of RRC 60/1, the eye of Roma is simply a raised lump with little definition of the eyelids (fig. 39 is an exception).  No "tufts" behind the helmet.

Reverse:   The legend "ROMA" is in raised letters on a very lightly rendered raised tablet or sometimes a very shallow bordered frame.  The letters often overlap the frame.  In some examples the tablet is barely discernable.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. -  The reverse legend "ROMA" in raised letters on a very lightly rendered raised  or shallow bordered tablet.
  2. -  Reverse horse's tail hangs down
  3. -  Visor of relatively straight lines, splayed from hinge over ear

Siblings: RRC 60/1a (Caduceus)

CRAWFORD 66/(2) - anonymous (Denarius not in Crawford)


Crawford lists only a quinarius in this issue and suggests it is from a mint in Sardinia. The referenced quinarius is not plated in Crawford, but the issue references a unique example as coin "A 742" in Bibliothèque Nationale de France.  The stylistic alignment between this quinarius and the denarius below was discoverd by Pierluigi.   For comparison, here is a photo of the Paris coin:

Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Quinarius, Coin A 742

 

26




RRC 66/(2)
( Not in Crawford)
Style of  66/1

Fig. 66/(2).1

Photo Courtesy of Classical Numismatic Group

Auction CNG 46, Lot 952

Obverse:  Curved, short visor of a broad line extending from the hinge over the ear and splaying to two lines over the eybrow.  The visor extends only a short distance beyond the forehead.  There is a "Pellet" below the truncation of the neck, and two raised dots in front of the ear. 

Reverse:   The horse's tail extends outward to the left.  The legend Roma is in relief in a three sided border, top, right, and bottom, with some evidence of an angular border on the left as well.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. -  The facial style of the obverse Roma is as quinarius 66/1 (See above)
  2. -  Horse's tail extends outward, to the left.
  3. -  Pellet below truncation of Roma's neck
  4. -  Visor is very curved and short, extending just beyond Roma's forehead

CRAWFORD 68/1b


Crawford 68/1b is the sibling to 68/1a, but without the corn ear symbol on the reverse. This issue, believed to be a product of a mint in Sicily, demonstrates one of the most unique styles of all the un-symboled and unsigned anonymous denarii. In spite of the tell-tale characteristic of the single “horn” in the back of Roma’s helmet, the primitive angular form is highly recognizable. The series contains rather convincing evidence that the celator worked from a common prototype. The coins from all dies of this series display the angular relatively crude style, yet the execution of some examples suggest the work of very skilled engravers (see fig. 68/1b.2).

27




RRC 68/1b
XIII.21

Fig. 68/1b.1

Bibliothèque Nationale de France

Fig. 68/1b.2

© Trustees of the British Museum

Obverse:  Single “horn” below the wing at the back of the helmet. The visor is made of of three generally straight raised lines extending from the hinge over the ear, splaying slightly toward the perimeter. Roma has what can be described as a characteristic “sleepy” eye, having a rather heavy eyelid. Four locks of hair extend below the binding at the back of the neck.

Reverse: The horses hind legs are generally fully extended and straight. The legend ROMA is surrounded on three sides with lines at top, right, and bottom, connected or nearly connected. In the British Museum, there exists the Bastianelli specimen with ROMA fully incuse on a raised tablet.  This is the only known example of Cr. 68/1b with fully incuse legend.

Notice also, the second trailing cape on the far rider in Fig. 68/1b.2.  This is unique and only found on a few specimens of 68/1b, including the Bastienelli specimen.  This extra cape is also found on a 68/2 quinarius sold in the RBW collection NAC 61 lot 193.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Single “horn” below the wing at the back of the helmet
  2. Very distinctive angular style

Siblings: RRC 68/1a (Corn Ear)

CRAWFORD 75/1c


Crawford 75/1c is the unsigned version of the C.AL series represented in Crawford’s 75/1a and 75/1b. This variety is commonly misattributed as Crawford 44/5, but the style is immediately recognizable with several significant consistencies.

28




RRC 75/1c
XV.6

Fig. 75/1c.1

 Photo Courtesy of Numismatica Ars Classica

The RBW Collection, NAC AG, Auction 61, Lot 327

Fig. 75/1c.2

Photo Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Auction 85, Lot 762

Obverse:  The visor is composed of three raised nearly parallel lines extending from the hinge over the ear. Occasionally these are slightly splayed but always straight lines. The three lines are most commonly close together, nearly parallel, and don’t separate near the end. There are four prominent locks of hair falling from the back of the neck, and sometimes less prominent ones surrounding. There is a distinctive curl in front of the ear, and another curl in front of the neck. There is frequently a loop under the visor.

Reverse: The rider’s cape is of the “scrolling” style. The stars above the head of the dioscuri most often have long rays around a center dot. The tail of the far horse is visible between the two pair of hind legs.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Obverse curl in front of ear
  2. Obverse curl in front of neck
  3. Visor of 3 close nearly parallel straight lines
  4. Reverse scrolling cape style
  5. Reverse extra horse's tail

Siblings:  75/1a (C.AL) and 75/1b (C.AL)

CRAWFORD 80/1b


The sibling to this issue is RRC 80/1a with the dolphin symbol. In spite of the similarities between 80/1a and 80/1b, the skill with which the dies were engraved is significantly more sophisticated in the fully anonymous 80/1b series than the usually very primitive 80/1a dolphin series.  

29




RRC 80/1b
XV.13

Fig. 80/1b.1

© Trustees of the British Museum

Fig. 80/1b.2

© Trustees of the British Museum

Obverse:  The peaked visor of Roma is usually curved slightly downward from the hinge over the ear to the point. There are two fine lines close together above the visor. Lots of hair on the rear shoulder with four or more locks below the hair cord.

Reverse: The ledgend ROMA is usually in a three lined frame, top, right, and bottom, but occasionally just top and right. The far horse’s tail usually appears between the two pair of hind legs. The stars are positioned slightly behind the heads of eash horsemen.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Two fine lines above the otherwise solid peaked visor
  2. Peaked visor curves down in a slight arc from the hinge over the ear to the outer tip
  3. multiple locks of hair (4 or usually more) below a prominent binding ribbon behind the neck.
  4. Reverse stars positioned slightly behind the heads of each horsemen

Siblings:  RRC 80/1a (Dolphin)

80/1b dies are consistently rendered with considerably more sophistication than the 80/1a dolphin series dies.  Here is an unusual 80/1b unsymboled example following the more primitive style used on the dolphin symbol dies.

 Style of CRAWFORD 106/3(d) - Anonymous


This anonymous issue is in the style of Crawford 106/3c (staff) or 107/1b ("C"), but lacks either of these symbols.   The pictured coins are the only known specimens.  This is a true series.  The obverse die is the same on both but the reverse dies are different.

30




RRC 106/3(d)
(Not in
Crawford)

Fig. 106/3(d).1

© Trustees of the British Museum


Fig. 106/3(d).2

Jusus Vico Sale 126, lot 3302

Obverse:  Curved splayed visor of three raised lines. The outside lines curve away at the ends There are short demarcating lines connecting the outside lines with the center line at their outside tips. The hair behind the ear above the cord appears to be braided.

Reverse:   ROMA is in a three sided frame, top, right and bottom. Streaming capes style, and riders with very large heads.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Curved splayed visor of three raised lines, connected at outer ends by short demarcating lines.
  2. Hair braided behind the ear above cord.
  3. In the same style as Crawford 106/3c (staff) or 107/1b ("C"), but lacks either of these symbols.

Siblings:  106/3c (staff) and 107/1b ("C")

CRAWFORD 107/1d


The stylistic sibling to 107/1d is Crawford 107/1c, a variety with the symbol “C” on the reverse between the stars above the horsemen, . The anonymous issue without the “C” is extremely rare.

31




RRC 107/1d
XV.13

Fig. 107/1d.1

Photo Courtesy of Muenzen-Ritter

Fig. 107/1d.2

© Trustees of the British Museum


Another example on Lamoneta.it site

Obverse:  Roma with a large “fleshy” face, suggesting somewhat of a double chin. The curved visor is a rather solid mass, but made of three raised lines splitting to three pointed ends.

Reverse:   ROMA is in a three sided frame, top, right and bottom.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Visor lines splayed at very end to sharp points
  2. Obverse fleshy face of Roma, stylistically like 107/1c. but without the “C” on the reverse

Siblings:  RRC 107/1c. ("C")

CRAWFORD 110/1b


Another very unique and recognizable style, Crawford 110/1B is identified by Crawford as the anonymous variety of the 110/1A variety of this series with the wreath symbol on reverse.

There is reason to believe that this group is actually more closely related to Crawford 111 than Crawford 110. The styles are similar enough that these varieties are probably from the same mint and by the same engraver(s). The major type of 110 is the wreath above and between the heads of the dioscuri. The type of 111 is the AL monogram below the horses.

Of the three known reverse dies with no symbol, one of these displays 3 prominent dots and one very light dot in the exact placement and orientation of the corners of the AL monogram. An example with this phenomenon was in the NAC 61 RBW collection. In that sale, the coin was categorized as "Cr. 111/1 var." and the phenomenon explained as an unfinished die.   It could also be a die that was worn and prepared for recutting by grinding the fields to smooth the damaged surfaces, leaving traces of the the deeper punch-marks used by the die cutters to guide the outline of the AL monogram. Of course regardless of the explanation of these three dots, it is probably an unfinished die.

There are two other known dies of this variety that show no trace of these dots or any other symbol.

32




RRC 110/1b
XX1.2

Fig. 110/1b.1 With AL Dots

Private Collection

Fig. 110/1b.2 Without dots

Private Collection

Other images available at Lamoneta.it example


Obverse:  The head of Roma is quite round and large. The helmet gives the impression of a stocking-cap, relatively light weight and extending the lines of the head. Four prominent unbound locks of hair fall from behind and below the helmet.

Reverse:   The cape style is distinctly different from other varieties, forming somewhat of a loop or a shape like the outline of an eye.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Like RRC 68/1b, the style of the design is the most distinguishing characteristic. Different from any other fully anonymous variety.
  2. Obverse stocking-cap helmet
  3. Four unbound locks of hair below and behind helmet
  4. Distinctive “loop” cape

Siblings:  RRC 110/1A (Wreath)

CRAWFORD 139/1


The ornamentation of Crawford 139/1 is very similar to that of Crawford 53/2. The small ROMA ledgend it the tell-tale characteristic.

33




RRC 139/1
XXIV.16
XXIV.17

Fig. 139/1.1

© Trustees of the British Museum


Fig. 139/1.2

Private Collection


Additional examples at Lamoneta.it site

Obverse:  Roma’s helmet is rather small in relation to the overall size of the motif. The tufts on the back of the helmet are somewhat far apart and because of the small size of the helmet there are usually only 3 or 4 tufts (rarely 5). Roma’s earring is alternatively an inverted triangle (See Issue C140/1 Fig. 140/1.2) or ornamented beads. The inverted triangle earring on this variety is unique and not seen on any other dioscuri anonymous types.

Reverse:   The ROMA legend is small in comparison to all other Dioscuri types. It is enclosed in a three sided frame, justified to the left, and rarely extends more than three quarters of the way across the exergue. The rider’s cape is of the “streaming” variety.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Reverse small “ROMA” in three sided frame extending less than three quarters of the way across the exergue
  2. Sharply peaked visor on a small helmet.
  3. Earring is inverted triangle or ornamented beads.

Siblings:  RRC 146/1 (AVTR),   RRC 147/1 (CN.DO), RRC 137/1 (Crescent)

CRAWFORD 140/1


Stylistically similar to RRC 139/1 but the reverse type of Luna in a biga makes this issue easy to identify.

35




RRC 140/1
XXIV.18
XXIV.19

Fig. 140/1.1

© Trustees of the British Museum

Fig. 140/1.2

Muenzen und Medaillen Gmbh



Obverse:  Style and ornamentation very similar to 139/1

Reverse:   Luna in a biga with crescent moon above and in front of forhead of Luna. Horses are galloping (forelegs are extending outward.) ROMA in very small letters enclosed in 3-sided border, extending just beyond halfway across the exergue.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Reverse type Luna in a “galloping” biga with horses’ forelegs extending outward

Siblings:  141/1 (TOD),  RRC 156/1 (Prawn),  

Conclusive evidence of the TOD sibling relationship is demonstrated by the die links illustrated here.

CRAWFORD 152/1c


This is the unsigned issue of the moneyer Sextus Quintilius (monogram SX.Q RRC 152/1a and RRC 152/1b). Note that the unsigned variety follows the stylistic features of RRC 152/1b. This is a very scarce variety.

36




RRC 152/1c
XXV.18

Fig. 152/1c.1

Photo Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Fig. 152/1c.2

Photo Courtesy Numismatica Ars Classica

The RBW Collection, Auction 61, Lot 675


Another image on the Lamoneta.it site (under Quintilia). Ref Dr. Busso-Peus, Sale 392, lot 4424.


Obverse:  Peaked visor on the helmet is quite long.  A curl of hair appears on the left shoulder in front of Roma . The helmet above the visor is rather small. Saw-blade tufts on the back of the helmet.

Reverse:   The dioscuri riding r. The horses have short trunks and are relatively small compared to the riders. The legend ROMA is in a two or three sided frame. The tail of the near horse is trailing straight out.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Curl on left shoulder
  2. Long peaked visor
  3. Obverse stylistic features of RRC 152/1b
  4. Horse’s tail trailing straight out

Siblings:  RRC 152/1b ("SX.Q"),  

CRAWFORD 158/1


RRC 158/1 is the stylistic sibling to the “fly” and TAL issues, Crawford 159/2 and 161/1 respectively. This is the same fundamental type as RRC 140/1, #26 above, but distinct from that issue in the "rearing back" stance of the horses in the biga.

37




RRC 158/1
XXVI.9
XXVI.10

Fig. 158/1.1

Photo Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Auction 61, lot 1168


Fig. 158/1.2

© Trustees of the British Museum


Obverse:  Stylistically similar to the other peaked visor types of this period. The nose is long and straight, and rather “Beaky” as the lower line of the nose extends more diagonally toward the upper lip than on other varieties. There is most often a small curl in front of the ear.

Reverse:   Luna in a biga with crescent moon above and in front of forehead of Luna. Horses are rearing back, with forelegs bent and hooves pointing downward. The legend ROMA is either in exergue or in a frame of two lines on top and to the right, but unlike Crawford 140/1, ROMA and its frame extends nearly the full width of the exergue

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Obverse form of Roma’s nose is Somewhat angular and “beaky”
  2. Horses are rearing up, with forelegs bent and hooves pointing down

Siblings:  RRC 159/2 (Fly),   RRC 161/1("TAL")

CRAWFORD 164/1a


RRC 164/1a & 164/1b are the stylistic sibling of RRC 165/1a and RRC 165/1b with the “anchor” symbol.

Both Crawford 164 varieties display a unique form of "x" star above the dioscuri consisting of a crescent and a crossing line:

38




RRC 164/1a
XXVII.14

164/1a

Fig. 164/1a.1

Private Collection

Fig. 164/1a.2

Photo Courtesy Numismatica Ars Classica

The RBW Collectionn Auction 61, lot 716

164/1a

Fig. 164/1a.3

Private Collection



Obverse:  Stylistically distinctive head of Roma wearing earrings of three beads.   Two raised lines above the visor that are curving upward.  Large, triangular griffon tufts.  Notice also the transverse lock of hair hanging down but then extending horizontally back behind the neck, under which 3 quite separate locks extend.  This obverse hair feature is unique to this variety for the dioscuri reverse anonymous types.

Reverse:   The cape of the near rider is split at the neck into two trailing capes.  Both horse's manes consist of small dots.  The legend ROMA is in a 3 sided frame, nearly the width of the exergue.   The reverse stars of both 164 varieties are made up of a crecent with a crossing line.  This is unique to these two varieties among the fully anonymous varieties.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Reverse stars are formed by a crescent and a line crossing forming an "X"
  2. Reverse near rider's cape is split into two trailing segments resembling more of a muffler than a cape.
  3. Reverse horse's manes consist of small dots
  4. Obverse displays very large triangular griffon tufts
  5. Obverse transverse lock of hair just below helmet, under which 3 quite separate locks extend

Siblings:  RRC 165/1a (Anchor)

CRAWFORD 164/1b


The most recognizable characteristic of RRC 164/1b is the cape:

39




RRC 164/1b
XXVII.15

Fig. 164/1b.1

Negrini Asta 34, Lot 163

Fig. 164 /1b.2

© Trustees of the British Museum


Obverse:  Helmet with large tufts in symmetrical triangles widely spaced (6).

Reverse:   The cape style is unique in that it appears to be three broad waving lines, unlike the “waving’ style described in Crawford 53/2. Stars appear as "X"s, or a crescent intersected by a bar.  The stars are positioned  somewhat in front of the heads of the Dioscuri rather than above. The far horse’s tail appears between the pairs of hind legs.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Unusual waving style cape with three broad lines, unique to this sub-variety
  2. Extra horse’s tail
  3. Stars nearly in front of the heads of the Dioscuri
  4. Stars are four pointed “X”s

Siblings:  RRC 165/1b (Anchor)

Note: Although RRC 165/1b is stylistically similar to this sub-variety, it does not share the most distinctive characteristics of the cape style and the four pointed stars.

CRAWFORD 167/1


RRC 167/1 is the the "beaky" nose style similar to RRC 158/1, but with the dioscuri reverse.  Perhaps one of the most difficult varieties to distinguish from the common RRC 53/2, as there are many exceptions to the most often seen distinguishing characteristics of this variety.

40




RRC 167/1
XXVII.19

Fig. 167/1.1

Photo Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Auction 85, lot 771


Fig. 167/1.2

© Trustees of the British Museum


Obverse:  Style very similar to Crawford 158/1 displaying “beaky” nose, but with beaded earrings.

Reverse:   Dioscuri reverse. The legend ROMA is in a two sided frame, top and right. The ROMA legend is rendered with a modern "A" with fully horizontal crossbar1.  This is one of the most significant distinctions separating this from 53/2.  Horses are small, with very short hind legs.  The horses are in a prancing posture.   Rider’s cape style is unique, somewhat like a branch of a tree.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Obverse form of Roma’s nose is Somewhat angular and “beaky”
  2. Horse's legs are quite short, especially the hind legs. Horses prancing or slightly rearing up.
  3. Tree branch cape style
  4. ROMA legend in two sided frame - top, right
  5. Modern style A in ROMA with fully horizontal crossbar

Siblings:  RRC 168/2 (Helmet)

1My appreciation to Ross Glanfield for pointing out this previously unnoticed feature.

CRAWFORD 197/1a and 197/1b


RRC 197/1a and 1b represent the only fully anonymous issues for the type of Victory in a biga with goad (197/1a) and whip (197/1b). No siblings can be found of RRC 197/1a with goad, and Crawford suggests it is a transitional issue from the earlier Luna in biga with goad to the Victory in biga with Whip type. The fabric of this and subsequent anonymous issues tend to be somewhat more compact and high relief.

41




RRC 197/1a
XXXI.11

Fig. 197/1a.1

Photo Courtesy Classical Numismatic Group

Auction 75, lot 897


Obverse:  Roma in helmet with a peaked visor.

Reverse:   Victory in a galloping biga, holding reigns in l. and goad in r. Legend ROMA in three sided border, with lines at left, top, and right. The right and left lines are diagonal. The rear horse in the biga is almost completely concealed by the near horse.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Reverse type Victory in galloping biga holding goad

42




RRC 197/1b
XXXI.12

Fig. 197/1b.1

Private Collection

Fig. 197/1b.2

© Trustees of the British Museum


Obverse:  Roma in helmet with a peaked visor. The head of Roma is of a different style from RRC 197/1a as shown in figure 68, but examples exist with obverse style of 197/1a and reverse type of Victory with whip. See Lamoneta.it site for an example from LHS Numismatic Leu 91, lot 542.

Reverse:   Victory in a galloping biga, holding reigns in l. and whip in r.  The legend ROMA in two sided border, with lines at top and right. The right line is diagonal. The rear horse in the biga is almost completely concealed by the near horse.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Reverse type Victory in galloping biga holding whip

CRAWFORD 198/1


RRC 198/1 is a peaked visor / dioscuri issue that is most often misattributed to RRC 53/2. The style and fabric, and particularly the cape style which is unique to this issue draws it apart from RRC 53/2.

43




RRC 198/1
XXXI.13

Fig. 198/1.1

© Trustees of the British Museum

Crawford 198/1

Fig. 198/1.2

Photo Courtesy of Andrew McCabe


Obverse:  Roma in helmet with a peaked visor. Earring is long with a bead at the top and a bead at the bottom, and an elongated ornament in-between.

Reverse:   Dioscuri riding r. The rider’s cape is similar to the “streaming” style, except the upper corner of the cape extends further to the left than the lower corner.  The ROMA legend is in a two sided frame, with lines on top and right. Horse's tail extends out to the left.

Distinguishing Characteristics:

  1. Roma’s Earring is long with a bead at the top and a bead at the bottom, and an elongated ornament in-between
  2. The upper corner of the horseman’s cape extends further to the left
  3. The horse's tail extends outward behind the horse to the left
  4. Legend ROMA is in a two sided frame

Unusual example with 3 sided frame